By Mediavilla E., Arribas S., Roth M., Cepa J. (eds.)

Concurrently storing either spectral and spatial details, 3D spectroscopy deals a brand new technique to take on astrophysical difficulties, and opens up new traces of study. seeing that its inception within the eighties and early nineties, examine during this box has grown tremendously. huge telescopes everywhere in the global are actually built with vital box devices, and tools of the long run James Webb house Telescope may have indispensable box spectroscopic services. these days, extra attempt is devoted to refining suggestions for decreasing, reading and reading the information received with 3D spectrographs. Containing lectures from the 17th iciness tuition of the Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute, this booklet explores new 3D spectroscopy thoughts and knowledge. A extensive and balanced presentation of study during this box, it introduces astronomers to a brand new new release of tools, widening the attraction of quintessential box spectroscopy and assisting it turn into a robust software in tackling astrophysical difficulties.

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24. INTEGRAL at the Nasmyth focus of the WHT. 25. INTEGRAL fiber bundles. choice of IFU magnification, INTEGRAL offers a variety of grating options with different dispersion, wavelength coverage and blaze thanks to the many modes available in WYFOS (Wide-Field Optic Spectrograph). This property makes INTEGRAL a very useful common user instrument as it allows observers to a large extent to optimize the instrumental setup and accommodate to their specific scientific problems. Fiber bundle IFUs have the advantage that they are conceptually simple and that they can be attached a posteriori to existing (preferably fiber) spectrographs.

Nod-shuffle 3D spectroscopy The technique of ‘nod-shuffle’ spectroscopy is not necessarily restricted to 3D; however, it is a very powerful option for background-limited observations of extended objects, where no patch of empty sky can be found within the FoV of the IFU. As described by Cuillandre et al. (1994), consecutive beam switching between object and sky pointings while shuffling charge on the CCD detector between an object and a sky integration zone, and final read-out after the total exposure time has been completed, is capable of eliminating systematic sky subtraction errors in the sense of chopping technique, which are common place in many areas of measuring techniques.

7 . 24. INTEGRAL at the Nasmyth focus of the WHT. 25. INTEGRAL fiber bundles. choice of IFU magnification, INTEGRAL offers a variety of grating options with different dispersion, wavelength coverage and blaze thanks to the many modes available in WYFOS (Wide-Field Optic Spectrograph). This property makes INTEGRAL a very useful common user instrument as it allows observers to a large extent to optimize the instrumental setup and accommodate to their specific scientific problems. Fiber bundle IFUs have the advantage that they are conceptually simple and that they can be attached a posteriori to existing (preferably fiber) spectrographs.

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