By Steven Runciman
Sir Steven Runciman's 3 quantity A heritage of the Crusades, one of many nice classics of English ancient writing, is being reissued. This quantity offers thoroughly with the 1st campaign and the root of the dominion of Jerusalem. As Runciman says in his preface: 'Whether we regard the Crusades because the so much great and such a lot romantic of Christian adventures, or because the final of the barbarian invasions, they shape a crucial truth in medieval heritage. prior to their inception the centre of our civilization used to be put in Byzantium and within the lands of the Arab caliphate. sooner than they pale out the hegemony in civilization had handed to western Europe. Out of this transference glossy historical past was once born.'
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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades Vol. I: The First Crusade and the Foundations of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Volume 1)
345-8; Gaudefroy-Demombynes and Pktonov, op. cit. pp. 26o-8. 1 395 a1081, pp. 335-44, and Lammens, Etudes sur le Siecle des Ommayades. The Abbasid Caliphate employed. But these Christians were with few exceptions Nestorians, whose outlook was towards the East and not the West. The Abbasid court had on the whole a greater interest in intellectual matters than the Ommayad. The Nestorians were freely used to translate philosophical and technical works from the ancient Greek; and scientists and mathematicians were encouraged to come, even from Byzantium, to teach at the schools of Baghdad.
The Fatimid monarch, accepted by the Shia Moslems as the true Caliph, could not afford any strengthening of Abbasid claims; while Byzantium considered her eastern frontier more vulnerable than her southern. Fear of the Turks led Basil II first to annex the provinces of Armenia that lay nearest to the Empire and then to take over the south-easternmost district of the country, the principality of Vaspurakan. His successors continued his policy. In 1045 the king of Ani, the chief ruler in Armenia, ceded his lands to the Emperor.
A This activity was mainly the result of private enterprise. But a new force was appearing in European politics, which amongst its other work set about the organization of the pilgrim traffic. In 910 Count William I of Aquitaine founded the Abbey ofCluny. By the end of the century Cluny, ruled by a series of remarkable abbots, was the centre of a vast ecclesiastical nexus, well ordered, closely knit and intimately connected with the Papacy. The Cluniacs regarded themselves as the keepers of the conscience of western Christendom.