By J. Miller

This ebook examines 3 examples of overdue nineteenth-century eastern diversifications of Western literature: a biography of U.S. furnish recasting him as a eastern warrior, a Victorian novel reset as oral functionality, and an American melodrama redone as a serialized novel selling the reform of eastern theater. Written from a comparative viewpoint, it argues that version (hon'an) was once a sound type of modern eastern translation that fostered inventive appropriation throughout many genres and between a various workforce of writers and artists. moreover, it invitations readers to re-examine edition within the context of translation thought.

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He gleaned some of his basic biographical information from sev- More Romance than Reality: Ulysses S. 45 Robun’s biography is both textual and pictorial, with illustrations complementing (and at times upstaging) the written text. The vivid colors and traditional illustrated (ezôshi) format (and the fact that all difficult words are glossed to show readings) leave little question as to the nature of his intended audience: the marginally literate masses (for whom many of Robun’s earlier works had been tailored).

On several occasions during the trip Grant comments on a scene and then offers some of his own insights, at times philosophical and at others clearly reiterating common attitudes. For example, in the Gulf of Aden, Grant wrote about boys swimming out to the steamer to dive for coins: “The natives are of a low-order of savages; hair dirty—or colored from some process—red, curled with small cord and screw tufts. It is fortunate that enlightened nations take possession of such people and make them, and their soil, produce something for the advancement of civilization of the human race” (Vol.

Grant and the Emperor (with their spouses) face each other across the room. In the foreground Grant (dark on light background) and the Empress (light on shadowed background) reflect the contrasts between the United States (male, yang) and Japan (female, yin). Grant’s profile partly obscures that of his wife, and his slight bow suggests respectful deference. The Emperor retains a formal, reserved posture just behind the Empress, whose open arms and slight bow suggest warmth and openness. There is a striking contrast between the entourages as well: Grant is flanked by Western male dignitaries, standing, in formal and military dress, while the Emperor is surrounded by women, kneeling, in traditional kimono.

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