By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs offers operators with the right kind workflow platforms and engineering thoughts for designing, making plans and enforcing water injection structures that would increase restoration components. while utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is likely one of the low in cost tools for making sure greatest construction premiums. This e-book presents either theoretical research and sensible instances for designing and comparing water injection structures and knowing key creation variables fascinated by making specific predictions for oil and water generating charges, water injection charges, and restoration efficiency.
This publication essentially explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear stream theories. those themes are then utilized to layout and implementation. program situations of 4 oilfields are incorporated to aid boost ideas whereas illustrating the correct workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The ebook can be utilized as a reference for box technical body of workers, or as technical help for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulate theories
- Provides exact examinations of features comparable to rigidity sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear stream theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complex waterflooding systems
- Includes genuine case reports from 4 oilfields
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Extra info for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs: Theory and Practice
24 3 1023 μm2). Chapter | 2 Nonlinear Percolation Theory for UPR 55 reservoirs of ultralow and high permeability, respectively, from which it can be seen that the effective pores in ultralow-permeability cores are composed of those with small geometric absolute values. Large pore channels serve as the major contributors to the core permeability. When the effective pressure increases, the core permeability tends to decline significantly once the pore channel is compressed and undergoes small changes.
Most of these reservoirs are sandstones of mixed or inverted rhythms, which means these reservoirs provide good conditions for waterflooding. Since fractures often have higher permeabilities, the ultralow-permeability reservoirs where microfractures are well developed usually have strong water absorptivity and require relatively low flooding pressure, which remains comparatively stable in the flooding process. Take the Chang-6 reservoir in Ansai, for example. The flooding pressure at the beginning was about 6 MPa, and by the end of 2006 it reached 7 MPa.
Speed-sensitivity in the waterflooding process in some areas, the delayed injection and the dropped reservoir pressures, cause an irreversible decline of permeabilities. 6. At last, the PI declines while the water-cut rises (Figs. 1-25 and 1-26). 24 t/d MPa. Chapter | 1 Features of Ultralow-Permeability Reservoirs in the Ordos Basin 37 Dimensionless oil/fluid production index (t/d. 00 0 20 40 60 Water cut (%) 100 80 FIGURE 1-26 Dimensionless oil/fluid production index curves in Wangyao. 00 Baiyushan Well Area 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Water cut (%) FIGURE 1-27 Fluid PI curves in the waterflood production of Triassic reservoirs.