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A. GaSb Esaki diodes for high-frequency applications. Proc. IRE 49,1101 (1961). 18. van der Pol, B. Non-linear theory of electric oscillations Proc. IRE22,1051-1086 (1934). 19. , and Nelson, D. E. Tunnel-diode microwave oscillators. Proc. IRE 49, 744753 (1961). 20. Martin, L. T. , "Electronic Circuits," Chapter 10. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1955. TUNNEL DIODE DEVICES 39 21. Edson, W. A. "Vacuum-Tube Oscillators," Chapter 4. Wiley, New York, 1953. 22. Sterzer, F. Analysis of GaAs tunnel diode oscillators.

We first direct our attention to the maximum voltage that can be placed across a semiconductor of given length. This "maximum voltage" will require considerable qualification. In structures of conventional sizes, the onset of avalanche multiplication limits the voltage that can be applied. We can obtain values of maximum allowable dc voltages under avalanche limitations by employing McKay's equation (A-3) and by assuming a = a 0 £ m a s a reasonable approximation to McKay's avalanche data of Fig.

Fabricated, provided information is available on levels of Xc that can be accommodated in microwave circuitry. Figure 4 presents Johnson's equation (1) along with the best experimental results reported to date. The experimental P m values are taken from manufacturers' quoted maximum bias limits. The experimental/ t 's are similarly reported device data. As expected, the experimental results fall below the theoretical limit. Also included for comparison is another theoretical curve, which is derived in the next section.

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