By P. Bernier, G. Bidan, S. Lefrant
This edited paintings includes 8 vast, review-type contributions through prime scientists within the box of artificial metals. The authors have been invited via the organisers of the overseas convention on technological know-how and expertise of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to study the development of analysis some time past twenty years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the state of the art of the sphere and assesses the clients for destiny research.
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Additional info for Advances in Synthetic Metals: Twenty Years of Progress in Science and Technology
0 ,k R 9 n(max)= 8 Scheme 17 Drefahl-method for the preparation of oligo-PPV. others, such as the Wittig- or Knoevenagel reaction , are heterocoupling processes and can easily be modified to obtain stilbenes and oligophenylenevinylenes with various substituents. Thus, the synthesis of donor- and acceptor-substituted stilbenes 85  and of related species, such as azobenzenes, has played an important role in the search for non-linear optical materials (chart 15) . An interesting variant of stilbenes is structure 86, which carries donors and acceptors at the olefinic unit.
_ -~:J'IUU3 v 75 Pd(0) DMF 76 77 @C6H13 3 Pd(0) Bu3~ , , ~ ' ~ S n B u 3 DMF 78 79 Scheme 15 Preparationof o-PPV and m-PPV according to Stille. To produce soluble PPVs, Sonoda and Kaeriyama chose the WesslingZimmermann procedure . The PPV prepared in this way is reported to have high molecular weight, combined with good solubility in organic solvents, and a highly favored trans-configuration (scheme 18a). In our experience, however, it is quite difficult to reproduce the results of Sonoda and Kaeriyama, and the better way to produce soluble PPV is the Gilch route  (scheme PPV 18b), which starts from 2,5-dialkybischloromethyl-benzenes 83.
L h, 0 Fa 89 90 KOH, Alcohol - c HBr 91 Scheme 20 Synthesis of PPE-oligomers and polymers. Advances in Synthetic Metals 44 electrochem. Oxid. e 0 92 93 chemical Aromat. -2H* -2 H § -e e 20 Scheme 21 Electrochemical synthesis of polythiophene (PT). transistors. Nickel-catalyzed polycondensation-dehalogenation of 2,5-dihalogenothiophene 96 and 97 provides another route to polythiophene (see scheme 22) . The polymers obained by this method are often referred to as "high quality PTs" because of their high purity and good physical properties, but due to the lack of solubilizing groups these polymers are insoluble and therefore difficult to process.