By G T Csanady,NetLibrary, Inc.

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Divergence brings air from above down to the interface, helping to keep boundary layers thin. We discuss these mechanisms of scalar transfer at the end of the next chapter after dealing with wind waves; here we merely note that molecular properties are likely to influence scalar property transfer to a greater degree than they do momentum transfer. Well above thin viscous or diffusive boundary layers, the influence of molecular properties should become imperceptible. Above the waves, in the constant stress layer, Reynolds fluxes of heat and humidity, w θ and w q , are (very nearly) equal to the mean interface fluxes Q i /ρa c pa and E/ρa : this is also a constant flux layer.

Upward temperature flux, w θ positive, results from a surface temperature θs higher than temperatures in the constant flux layer. As long as the corresponding buoyancy flux is small enough, the stability is nearly “neutral,” the properties of the turbulent flow remain as before, eddy size proportional to distance above the interface, friction velocity characterizing eddy motions. 55) = func (w θ , u ∗ , z). dz There are four variables in this equation and three units of length, time, and temperature.

One other factor that may cause significant departures from Charnock’s law is “wave age,” quantified by C p /u ∗ . Field studies of wave age effects are of recent date, however, and the results have remained controversial for some time. 11 Logarithmic velocity distributions in light winds over “supersmooth” surfaces in Lake Michigan, observed by Portman (1960), compared with typical distributions over a smooth and rough solid surface. From Csanady (1974). , C p /u ∗ around 30). 37) supposedly valid within the range of C p /u ∗ from 4 to 14 or so.

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