By Enes Kadic
Reviews and compares the most important forms of bioreactors, defines their execs and cons, and identifies examine wishes and figures of benefit that experience but to be addressed
- Describes universal modes of operation in bioreactors
- Covers the 3 universal bioreactor kinds, together with stirred-tank bioreactors, bubble column bioreactors, and airlift bioreactors
- Details much less universal bioreactors varieties, together with mounted mattress bioreactors and novel bioreactor designs
- Discusses merits and downsides of every bioreactor and gives a technique for optimum bioreactor choice in response to present strategy needs
- Reviews the issues of bioreactor choice globally whereas contemplating all bioreactor concepts instead of focusing on one particular bioreactor type
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Additional info for An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer
Grund, 1986; Sriram and Mann, 1977). As summarized by Boyer et al. (2002), DGD can be used to record global gas and solid holdup, as well as estimate the holdup make-up according to different bubble size classes. , 1999; Vermeer and Krishna, 1981) have employed the DGD technique extensively to determine dense and dilute phase gas holdup values. 1, Krishna and Ellenberger (1996) followed the fluid-level decline as a function of time and identified the dilute phase with the large fast-rising bubbles that disengage first and the dense phase with the small bubbles that disengage after the large bubbles.
2002); the interested reader is directed to these sources for detailed descriptions of the available hardware and data analysis procedures. , 1988). 3) a d2 B where ???? is the total gas holdup, a is the total interfacial area, and dB is the individual bubble diameter. Bubble size can be determined through visual observations and image analysis techniques. If the time difference between successive frames of the same bubble is known and the bubble displacement can be measured, then bubble rise velocity can also be measured.
As indicated by Rodgers et al. (2011), there are several experimental methods that have been used to determine mixing or residence time, including dye injection, pH shift, tracer monitoring, flow followers, and tomography imaging. For example, neutrally buoyant tracer particles were tracked by Kawase and Moo-Young (1986b) to determine the circulation time in an airlift bioreactor. The time it took the tracer particles to complete one loop was determined through multiple measures to calculate the average circulation time.