By Jean-Michel Rendu
An creation to Cut-off Grade Estimation examines essentially the most vital calculations within the mining undefined. Cut-off grades are necessary to making a choice on the industrial feasibility and mine lifetime of a venture. Profitability and socioeconomic impression of mining operations are inspired by way of the alternative of cut-off grades. Cut-off grades play a key function in estimating mineral reserves that may be publicly reported.
This new version is less complicated to learn and of larger useful curiosity to practitioners. the connection among optimization of web current price, potential constraints, and chance price is defined in higher aspect. a brand new part discusses mixing suggestions, which play a serious position in increasingly more mining operations.
Author Jean-Michel Rendu, an the world over famous professional within the administration, estimation, and public reporting of mineral assets, presents useful insights. As a supervisor in significant mining businesses, a expert, and an educator, Rendu has got substantial event in all points of mining engineering, event that used to be included into this publication.
This is a must-read for mine managers, analysts, geologists, mining engineers, and public policymakers who are looking to remain at the cutting edge in their profession.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Cut-Off Grade Estimation, Second Edition
If a sulfide flotation process is to be used, oxidation will result in lower recovery. Conversely, if an oxide leach process is to be applied to material that was not fully oxidized when mined, stockpiling may result in enhanced recovery. There are obvious difficulties in using these formulas, the main one being that future costs and revenues are difficult or impossible to estimate with accuracy. Furthermore, because processing of stockpiled material is likely to occur late in the mine life, the net present value of future revenues is likely to be small compared with costs incurred at the time of mining and to maintain the stockpile over time.
These utilities can be written as follows (in these equations the cost of sales R is included in V, and the overhead costs Oo are included in Mo, Po1, and Po2): U1 ( x ) = x ⋅ r1 ⋅ V − ( M o + Po1 ) U 2 ( x ) = x ⋅ r2 ⋅ V − ( Mo + Po2 ) The optimal cut-off grade is x c = ( Po1 − Po2 ) ( r1 − r2 ) V Copyright © 2013 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. All rights reserved. Breakeven Cut-off Grade 39 40 30 Area of Opportunity Loss If Cut-off = 3 g/t Utility, $/t 20 10 0 1 2 3 Cut-off Actually Used xs = 3 g/t –10 –20 4 5 6 Optimal Leach-Mill Cut-off xc = 4 g/t Grade, g/t Figure 3-12â•… Opportunity cost of using a cut-off grade lower than the optimal cutoff grade 40 Area of Opportunity Loss If Cut-off = 5 g/t 30 Utility, $/t 20 10 0 1 –10 –20 2 3 4 Optimal Leach-Mill Cut-off xc = 4 g/t 5 6 Cut-off Actually Used xs = 5 g/t Grade, g/t Figure 3-13â•… Opportunity cost of using a cut-off grade higher than the optimal cutoff grade Copyright © 2013 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.
00 for mill. 00-perounce sales cost. The maximum gold recoveries are 60% for leaching and 90% for milling. Significantly lower recoveries are achieved for low-grade material. Figure 3-7 shows the relationship between recoveries and grade, as determined from metallurgical testing and historical production statistics. 00). 1035). Figure 3-8 also shows how the cut-off grade can be determined by graphical method. The relationship between the utility of leaching or milling material and the average grade of this material is no longer linear.